A Sontag by Any Other Name

When historic patterns are on Raverly’s Hot Right Now page, my day is made. This happened last week when the Ladies’ Knitted Hug-Me-Tight, or Zouave Jacket made it to page 1 on Hot Right Now. As any good history nerd would do, I followed the link and started reading the book where it was originally published, made available online at archive.org.  The book was The Art of Knitting published in 1892 by the Butterick Publishing Company.

From my quick flip through, it appears to be a fascinating publication.  The first part is what we might call a Stitch Dictionary, with many interesting lace work and other stitch patterns to follow.  The chapters that follow look at different articles of knitwear, tips on how to work them, and patterns that one could make, provided that knitter is fluent in patterns from the 19th century.

My quick flipping was interrupted in the Useful Articles for Children’s Wear chapter as one pattern provided was for a Child’s Chest Protector.  Here’s the image accompanying the pattern:

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Child’s Chest Protector, The Art of Knitting, p. 112; accessed from archive.org

Why did this pattern catch my eye? Because it looks awfully similar to Godey’s Sontag, a pattern I’ve made so many times now I can basically knit it in my sleep.

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Originally from Godey’s; image from http://katedaviesdesigns.com/2013/06/28/sontag/

 

 

The ‘Child’s Chest Protector’ has incorporated the garter ridge into the actual design and pattern notes, rather than with Godey’s where the border (garter ridge or otherwise) was added after the main piece was completed.

The pattern reads:

To begin the protector – Cast on 30 stitches and knit back and forth plain until there are 7 rows

To make the first row of blocks – after finishing the first row, turn and knit as follows: knit 10, purl 5, knit 5, purl 5, knit 5 (in knitting the rows, 5 stitches must be knit plain at each site of every row, in order to firm the boder seen in the engraving). Turn

Knit 10, p 5, k5, p5, k5. Turn

K 10, p 5, k 5, p 5, k 5. Turn

Knit back and forth in this order until there are 6 rows, each formed by knitting across and back. This completed the first set of blocks.

To begin the second set of blocks – (These blocks must alternate with those of the first set). Knit 5, then widen by knitting a stitch out of the next stitch, but to not slip it off the needle; then purl out of this same stitch and slip it off; purl 4, k 5, p 5, k 5, now purl 1 out of the next stitch, but do not slip it off the needle, to widen, and then knit 5. Turn.

K 7, but do not slip off the last stitch; p 5, k 5, p 5, k 7 but do not slip the last stitch off the needle; p 1, k 5. Turn.

Complete this set of blocks after this manner, widening as described at each side between the blocks and border. Then make a set of blocks to correspond with the first set, widening as in the second set, and so on until the widest part of the protector is reached.

To make the Tabs – when the neck edge is reached (in the protector illustrated) pass all the stitches of the border at one side and those of 6 blocks onto another needle; then bind off the stitches of 4 blocks for the neck-edge. Now continue the knitting after the manner directed, to form the tab at one side, making the plain border at each side of the tab and narrowing at the outer border instead of widening as before. Complete for the other tab to correspond.

For the outer Edge – Use Angora wool and crochet shells along the border as follows: 1 single crochet and 2 doubles all in the same space, selecting the spaces so that the shells will be perfectly flat. Fasten ties of ribbon at the sides as seen in the engraving, to tie the protector about the waist.

 

There are slight differences to the patterns – Godey’s has an increase of one stitch every row while Art of Knitting increases 2 stitches every other row; as well, once you reach the arms, or ‘tabs,’ Godey’s has you decreasing on the inner edge while Art of Knitting decreases on the outer edge.  These slight changes aside, following either pattern will result in a garment which will keep your torso warm while your arms are free to move about as you want.

If 100 year old patterns are your thing, or if you’re simply interested in an old read, I’d recommend checking out The Art of Knitting, available to view online.

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Warm Woolen Wonderfulness

A number of months ago, I completed my Woolen Undersleeves.  The pattern is from 1862 from Godey’s Ladies Book, and like with other historical patterns, I had to muddle my way through the historic lingo when creating my own undersleeves. I created these undersleeves to wear with my historic costume for work, knowing they would come in handy during any outreach I have to do in the cold weather.

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This weekend, I had my first opportunity to use the undersleeves.  My co-workers and amazing volunteers and I got dressed in our Victorian finest and marched in our local Santa Claus Parade.  After a very warm Friday, the temperatures dipped on Saturday, much more appropriate for Christmas weather. Undersleeves were a necessity.

I am very happy to report that I was able to 5+ kilometres in the chilly weather, and thanks to my woolen undersleeves, I was very toasty warm.  I can happily report, the undersleeves were a success.

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Victorian finest, complete with my Sontag and undersleeves.

The pattern I used was from Godey’s Ladies Book, 1862

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For the modern interpretation of the pattern, please read my original post.

 

Undersleeves

Every so often, my job requires that I dress like a Victorian.  When I first started, fresh out of museum studies and thrilled to be employed, I remember a slight feeling of embarrassment and nervousness the first time I donned the costume.  I think it was mostly my own insecurities and anxieties working their way out, but after time and NUMEROUS occasions, I’m quite comfortable in my ‘pioneer’ dress and am quite happy to wear it as the time sees fit.

The dress I wear was made by me, under Grandma’s careful supervision, over two years ago, and recently, I’ve been adding to my accessories through various historic knitting patterns.  I completed by Sontag last Spring, and my Sortie Cap was a very fast knit over a weekend last summer. Since the holiday knitting season ended, I’ve been slowly working away at another historic pattern which will keep my arms very warm, as I’ve been knitting myself a pair of undersleeves.

I’m still working on undersleeve #2, and I’ll share the project, photos, and my own edits and notes in a future post, but I thought for today, I’d share a little history on this accessory, because until I started working in the Museum field, I had never heard of undersleeves before.  The name seems straight forward, but what is the history of this accessory?

Undersleeves were commonly worn during the mid 1800s, an essential part of any woman’s fashion.  They were detachable, which made laundering easier – and laundry was no easy task during the Victorian era. As much as I long for aspects of the past, I am very thankful for my modern washer and dryer. Hot water, harsh soaps, washboards and wringers – no thank you. Typically white or off-white, undersleeves helped to keep body oils off the fabric of dresses, which were commonly made from wool or silk, materials which couldn’t be washed.  Undersleeves served to be both purposeful for protecting the fabric as well as decorative.

Many museums have undersleeves in their collection, and quite often they are trimmed with lace or other delicate stitching.  When fashions changed, as fashions inevitably do, undersleeves were a simple way to change up the look of a dress rather than with a new dress entirely.  The undersleeves would also change seasonally; warm weather would see sleeves made from light-weight white fabrics such as organdy, while cotton and other heavier materials could be used to help stave off the cold.  The pattern I am making from Godey’s is for wool undersleeves, clearly intended for cold weather wear.

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Cotton Undersleeves, c. 1850, in the collection of the Met Museum
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Linen Undersleeve, c. 1840, in the collection of the Museums of  Mississauga
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Undersleeves, c. 1906, in the collection of the Canadian Museum of History

The styles of these accessories also varied, from those that required pinning to the interior of the dress sleeve, ones which gathered at the wrist and those that were open and loose at the wrist.  Not only could the material change for the season, but Peterson’s, another Lady’s publication from the era, discussed how undersleeves could change for wear throughout the day.

White undersleeves for morning wear are made with a deep linin cuff, fastened with three studs, either comprised of precious stones, or of gold.  For evening wear, the cuff is made of lace and embroidered insertion; but fullings of any description are now never employed, as the under-sleeve should be as flat as possible.

~Peterson’s Magazine, 1863.

Undersleeves, after a number of decades, fell out of fashion, but one can still find many sewing or knitting patterns for making your own.  Coming next week, the Godey’s pattern I followed when knitting my woolen undersleeves, my interpretation of the pattern, and my finished sleeves. Stay tuned!

 


When researching this post, I referred to a few sources, including:

The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Clothing Through World History, Volume 3, 1801 to Present, edited by Jill Condra; accessed: https://goo.gl/npaeZg

Oshawa Express, ‘Under sleeves, a unique piece of clothing,’ J. Weymark; accessed: http://goo.gl/WYbzxL

Dressed for the Photographer: Ordinary Americans and Fashion, 1840-1900,  Joan L. Severa; accessed: https://goo.gl/gI30oL